Welcome to the Howard County Public Schools Algebra I Common Core Curricular Resource!


On this site you will find information and resources to help you effectively implement Common Core Algebra I.
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Units of Study:

Unit 1: Relationships between Quantities and Reasoning with Equations
  • Linear and Exponential Expressions
  • Relationships in One Variable
  • Relationships in Two Variables
Unit 2: Linear and Exponential Relationships
  • Representing Linear and Exponential Functions
  • Modeling Data with Linear and Exponential Functions
  • Systems of Equations and Inequalities
Unit 3: Descriptive Statistics
Unit 4: Quadratic Functions and Modeling
  • Graphical Analysis and Modeling of Quadratic Functions
  • Algebraic Analysis of Quadratic Functions
Unit 5: Modeling with Other Functions

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McCallum Web Resources:
High School Algebra Progressions Document
High School Functions Progressions Document
High School Modeling Progressions Document
High School Statistics and Probability Progressions Document

Essential Curriculum for 2012-2013:

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Unit 1: Relationships between Quantities and Reasoning with Equations
Instructional Note: Standards N.Q.1-N.Q.3 should be emphasized throughout all units of instruction. These standards should not be taught in isolation.

Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems.
N.Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays.

N.Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling.

N.Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities.


Linear and Exponential Expressions

Interpret the structure of expressions.
A.SSE.A.1 Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (Note: Limit to linear expressions and to exponential expressions with integer exponents.)
a. Interpret parts of an expression, such as terms, factors, and coefficients.

b. Interpret complicated expressions by viewing one or more of their parts as a single entity. For example, interpret P(1+r)n as the product of P and a factor not depending on P.

Note: For the 2012-2013 school year, students have had some exposure to simplifying expression with integer exponents, but will need to review the following:
Work with radicals and integer exponents.
  1. Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions. For example, (3^2)(3^-5)=(3^-3)=1/27. (8.EE.1)
  2. Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form x^2=p and x^3=p, where p is a positive rational number. Evaluate square roots of small perfect squares and cube roots of small perfect cubes. Know that the square root of 2 is irrational. (8.EE.2)


Relationships in One-Variable

Create equations that describe numbers or relationships.
A.CED.A.1 Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. Limit to linear equations and inequalities.

Understand solving equations as a process of reasoning and explain the reasoning.
A.REI.A.1 Explain each step in solving a linear equation as following from the equity of numbers asserted at the previous step, starting from the assumption that the original equation has a solution. Construct a viable argument to justify a solution method. Note: Students have solve multi-step linear equations in Pre-Algebra. Pretest this standard and review as needed.

Solve equations and inequalities in one variable.
A.REI.B.3 Solve linear equations and inequalities in one variable, including equations with coefficients represented by letters. Note: Students have solve multi-step linear equations in Pre-Algebra. Pretest this standard and review as needed.

Create equations that describe numbers or relationships.
A.CED.A.4 Rearrange linear formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations.


Relationships in Two Variables

Understand the concept of a function and use function notation.
F.IF.A.1 Understanding that a function from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. If f is a function and x is an element of its domain, then f(x) denotes the output of f corresponding to the input x. The graph of f is the graph of the equation y = f(x).

F.IF.A.2 Use function notation, evaluate functions for inputs in their domains, and interpret statements that use function notation in terms of a context.

Create equations that describe numbers or relationships.
A.CED.A.2 Create linear equations to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales.

Represent and solve equations and inequalities graphically.
A.REI.D.10 Understand that the graph of an equation in two variables is the set of all its solutions plotted in the coordinate plane, often forming a curve (which could be a line).

Create equations that describe numbers or relationships.
A.CED.A.3 Represent constraints by linear equations or inequalities, and by systems of linear equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions as viable or non-viable options in a modeling context. For example, represent inequalities describing nutritional and cost constraints on combinations of different foods.

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Unit 2: Linear and Exponential Relationships

Representing Linear and Exponential Functions

Understand the concept of a function and use function notation.
F.IF.A.3 Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers. For example, the Fibonacci sequence is defined recursively by f(0) = f(1) = 1, f(n + 1) = f(n) + f(n – 1) for n greater than or equal to 1. Note: Connect F.IF.3 to students’ experiences with arithmetic and geometric sequences from Pre-Algebra.

Build a function that models a relationship between two quantities.
F.BF.A.1 Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities.
a. Determine an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context.

b. Combine standard function types using arithmetic operations.

Construct and compare linear and exponential models and solve problems.
F.LE.A.1 Distinguish between situations that can be modeled with linear functions and with exponential functions.
a. Prove that linear functions grow by equal differences over equal intervals; and that exponential functions grow by equal factors over equal intervals.

b. Recognize situations in which one quantity change at a constant rate per unit interval relative to another.

c. Recognize situations in which a quantity grows or decays by a constant percent rate per unit interval relative to another.

F.LE.A.2 Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two input-output pairs (include reading these from a table).

F.LE.A.3 Observe using graphs and tables that a quantity increasing exponentially eventually exceeds a quantity increasingly linearly or exponentially.

Interpret linear and exponential functions that arise in applications in terms of a context.
F.IF.B.4 For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts, intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative, and end behavior.

F.IF.B.5 Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes. For example, if the function h(n) gives the number of person-hours it takes to assemble n engines in a factory, then the positive integers would be an appropriate domain for the function.

F.IF.B.6 Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph.

Analyze linear and exponential functions using different representations.
F.IF.C.7 Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases.
a. Graph linear and exponenial functions and show intercepts, maxima, and minima.

e. Graph exponential functions, showing intercepts and end behavior.

F.IF.C.9 Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions).

Build new functions from existing functions.
F.BF.B.3 Identify the effect of the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the values of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases that illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Focus on vertical translations of graphs of linear and exponential functions. Relate the vertical translation of a linear function to its y-intercept.

Interpret expressions for functions in terms of the situations they model.
F.LE.B.5 Interpret the parameters in a linear or exponential function in terms of a context. Limit exponential functions to those of the form f(x) = bx + k.


Modeling Data with Linear and Exponential Functions

Summarize, represent, and interpret data on quantitative variables.
S.ID.B.6 Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related. Note: Students have informally seen scatter plots and line of best fit, but have not calculated line of best fit.
a. Fit a function to the data; use functions fitted to data to solve problems in the context of the data. Use given functions or choose a function suggested by the context. Emphasize linear and exponential models.

b. Informally assess the fit of a linear function by plotting and analyzing residuals.

c. Fit a linear function for a scatter plot that suggests a linear association.

Interpret linear models.
S.ID.C.7 Interpret the slope (rate of change) and the intercept (constant term) of a linear model in the context of the data.

S.ID.C.8 Compute (using technology) and interpret the correlation coefficient of a linear fit.

S.ID.C.9 Distinguish between correlation and causation.


Systems of Equations and Inequalities

Solve systems of equations.
Note: For students in Algebra I in 2012-2013, this will be the first experience solving systems of equations. The following standards from Common Core 8 will need to be infused in this unit.

Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations. (8.EE.8)
a. Understand that solutions to a system of two linear equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously.

b. Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically, and estimate solutions by graphing the equations. Solve simple cases by inspection. For example, 3x+2y=5 and 3x+2y=6 have no solutions because 3x+2y cannot simultaneously be 5 and 6.

c. Solve real-world and mathematical problems leading to two linear equations in two variables. For example, given coordinates for two pairs of points, determine whether the line through the first pair of points intersects the line through the second pair.

A.REI.C.5 Prove that, given a system of equations in two variables, replacing one equation by the sum of that equation and a multiple of the other produces a system with the same solutions.

A.REI.C.6 Solve systems of linear equations exactly and approximately (e.g., with graphs), focusing on pairs of linear equations in two variables. Note: This will be students first exposure to parallel and perpendicular lines in a coordinate plane.

Represent and solve equations and inequalities graphically.
A.REI.D.11 Explain why the x-coordinates of the points where the graphs of the equations y = f(x) and y = g(x) intersect are the solutions of the equation f(x) = g(x); find the solutions approximately, e.g., using technology to graph the functions, make tables of values, or find successive approximations. Include cases where f(x) and/or g(x) are linear and exponential functions.

A.REI.D.12 Graph the solutions to a linear inequality in two variables as a half-plane (excluding the boundary in the case of strict inequality), and graph the solution set to a system of linear inequalities in two variables as the intersection of the corresponding half-planes.

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Unit 3: Descriptive Statistics

Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable.
S.ID.A.1 Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). Note: This will be the students first exposure to histograms.

S.ID.A.2 Use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data distribution to compare center (median, mean) and spread (interquartile range, standard deviation) of two or more different sets. Note: Students should be comfortable finding mean and median.

S.ID.A.3 Interpret differences in shape, center, and spread in the context of the data sets, accounting for possible effects of extreme data points (outliers). Note: Include analysis of stem-and-leaf plots.

Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables.
S.ID.B.5 Summarize categorical data for two categories in two-way frequency tables. Interpret relative frequencies in the context of the data (including joint, marginal, and conditional relative frequencies). Recognize possible associations and trends in the data.

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Unit 4: Quadratic Functions and Modeling

Graphical Analysis and Modeling of Quadratic Functions

Perform arithmetic operations on polynomials.
A.APR.A.1 Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers, namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication; add, subtract, and multiply polynomials. Focus on polynomial expressions that are linear or quadratic in a positive integer power of x.

Build a function that models a relationship between two quantities.
F.BF.A.1 Write a quadratic function that describes a relationship between two quantities.
a. Determine an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context.

b. Combine standard function types using arithmetic operations.

Analyze functions using different representations.
F.IF.C.7 Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases.
a. Graph linear and quadratic functions and show intercepts, maxima, and minima.

Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of a context.
F.IF.B.4 For a quadratic function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts, intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative, relative maximums and minimums, symmetries, and end behavior.

F.IF.B.5 Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationships it describes.

Build new functions from existing functions.
F.BF.B.3 Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology.



Algebraic Analysis of Quadratic Functions

Interpret the structure of expressions.
A.SSE.A.1 Interpret quadratic expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context.
a. Interpret parts of an expression, such as terms, factors, and coefficients.

b. Interpret complicated expressions by viewing one or more of their parts as a single entity.

A.SSE.A.2 Use the structure of an expression to identify ways to rewrite it.

Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems.
Instructional Note: It is important to balance conceptual understanding and procedural fluency in work with equivalent expressions. For example, development of skill in factoring and completing the square goes hand-in-hand with understanding what different forms of a quadratic expression reveal.

A.SSE.B.3 Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression.
a. Factor a quadratic expression to reveal the zeros of the function it defines.

b. Complete the square in a quadratic expression to reveal the maximum or minimum value of the function it defines.

Solve equations and inequalities in one variable.
Instructional Note: Students should learn of the existence of the complex number system, but will not solve quadratics with complex solutions until Algebra II.
A.REI.B.4 Solve quadratic equations in one variable.
a. Use the method of completing the square to transform any quadratic equation in x into an equation of the form (x – p)2 = q that has the same solutions. Derive the quadratic formula from this form.

b. Solve quadratic equations by inspection (e.g., for x2 = 49), taking square roots, completing the square, the quadratic formula and factoring, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation. Recognize when the quadratic formula gives complex solutions and write them as a+/-bi for real numbers a and b.

Analyze functions using different representations.
F.IF.C.8 Write a function defined by an expression in different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain different properties of the function.
a. Use the process of factoring and completing the square in a quadratic function to show zeroes, extreme values, and symmetry of the graph, and interpret these in terms of a context.

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Unit 5: Modeling with Other Functions

Build new functions from existing functions.
F.BF.B.4 Find inverse functions. Focus on linear functions, but consider simple situations where the domain of the function must be restricted in order for the inverse to exist, such as f(x) = x2, x > 0.
a. Solve an equation of the form f(x) = c for a simple function f that has an inverse and write an expression for the inverse. For example, f(x) = 2x3 or f(x) = (x + 1)/(x – 1) for x not equal to 1.

Analyze functions using different representations.
F.IF.C.7 Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases.
b. Graph square root, cube root, and piecewise-defined functions, including step functions and absolute value functions.

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Additional Objectives to Review/Teach for the HSA:

Notes for Algebra I/Data Analysis H.S.A.:

Objectives to review briefly prior to test:
  1. Use the concepts or ratio and proportion to solve problems.
  2. Determine the experimental probability of an event using real-world data.
  3. Represent, interpret, and manipulate data in matrices to solve real-world problems.

Objectives to teach prior to the test:
  1. Calculate theoretical probability and use simulations or statistical inference from data to estimate the probability of an event.
  2. Design and/or conduct an investigation that uses statistical methods to analyze data and communicate results.
  3. Investigate and communicate the use and misuse of statistics.

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